Welcome to Chessimo ® Online - your personal chess trainer
Chessimo Online provides the following functions.
Improve your chess with Chessimo ® Online’s innovative training
Determine your Elo ranking by playing against a virtual opponent
Use your screen as a chess board
Now enjoy training and playing with Chessimo ® Online.
How to TRAIN
Chessimo ® Online Online’s innovative approach to chess training is based on repeatedly solving real game situations chosen by the Brazilian GM Gilberto Milos. The exercises are sorted by themes (tactics, strategy, endgames) and severity.
The themes are grouped by modules, each module is split into several units and each unit consists of up to 720 exercises.
Chessimo ® Online helps you to improve your basic knowledge in tactics, endgames, openings and strategy in a playful way. Each exercise demonstrates the interactive training and asks you for the correct answer to a question posed by the software.
Chessimo ® Online helps you,
- To significantly improve your ability to combine moves
- To recognize tactical moves quicker
- To perfect your openings and endgames
- To think ahead more efficiently
The first goal is achieved once you’ve completed each exercise once. This will be marked by a blue point marking the unit in the overview.
Clicking the “Exercises x/y” button will show you which exercises of this module you’ve already solved, and how often.
Ideally you will want to play through all units of one module, then progress to the next module and its exercises.
The first screen in the train menu displays your progress in relation to the end date determined in the settings.
If you are behind the target the progress bar will appear in red. If you are in line the progress bar will be green. If you have completed a section it will be displayed in blue.
The „History“ button will give you a full overview of all exercises already performed.
Please click the Train button to start your training.
Chose one of the five themes and start or continue your training.
Chessimo ® Online displays a game situation for each exercise and asks for a solution, i.e. „What is white’s best move“
To answer the question, move the correct piece to the correct destination. A blue check mark will indicate a correct solution and you may progress to the next exercise (by clicking the arrow bottom right).
If you don’t get it right immediately Chessimo ® Online will highlight the correct piece in yellow . After two more failed attempts Chessimo ® Online will also highlight the correct target square – in green.
„Show moves“ displays an overview of all moves.
In the upper right corner you will find information about your current exercise (no x out of a total y in this module). Click this button to see how often you have performed the exercises of this module already.
Click the navigation buttons to repeat your exercise or move to the next/previous one.
If the exercises of a unit have been performed six times the exercise will be marked blue.
Chess is a board game played between two players: White and Black. 1 set of chess pieces includes 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. The checker board consists of 64 squares, which are arranged in a 8x8 grid in alternating black and white.
The two players alternate turns (White always moves first), moving one piece at a time with the ultimate goal of capturing the enemy king. Once a move is done, the player is not allowed to withdraw it while it's his turn. If a piece lands on a square occupied by an enemy piece, that enemy is captured and removed from the board. Also, with the exception of the knight, pieces are not permitted to jump over other pieces (see also “moves”).
The aim of the game is to checkmate the opponent's king.
This is the case, as soon as the king is no longer able to move on a square which isn't threatened by the enemy.
At the beginning of the game the pieces get arranged in the classic starting position.
White always moves first.
Every move must be done according to the following rules:
Pawns are the shortest and weakest pieces in chess. Pawns are also the only pieces in chess that move one way, but capture in another fashion. Unlike other pieces, pawns can only move forward, not backwards. They may only move directly forward one square at a time, unless they are still on the square on which they began the game; if it is the pawn's first move, it has the option of moving one or two squares, directly forward. .However, a pawn cannot capture a piece directly in front of it. Pawns can only capture a piece by moving one square forward diagonally.
There are 2 notable exceptions for the pawn: „en passant“ and „pawn promotion “ (see also „special moves“ below)
The rook usually looks like a small tower. It is allowed to move in a straight line horizontally or vertically, for any number of squares. Only in case of „castling“ (see also „special moves“ below) the rook is allowed to leap over other pieces/the king.
The knight — which usually looks like a horse — moves in an irregular pattern that can be described in several ways. This strange movement is usually referred to as an "L-shape", as the knight move can also be described as moving two squares vertically or horizontally, then making a "turn" left or right and moving one more square. From the center of the board, this means the knight can move to eight different squares.
The bishop moves in a straight line diagonally, for any number of squares. This also means: If the knight starts on a white square, it stays on white squares during the whole game and vice versa.
The queen is a combination of a rook and a bishop — it may move any number of squares in a straight line, either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. The queen is the most powerful piece in chess.
The king can also move in any direction, including diagonally. However, he can only move one square at a time. The king is the most important piece in chess, as the imminent capture of the king means the game is over.
If a king becomes endangered by an enemy's chessman and this king is still able to move on a secured square, you call it check. It is not allowed to move the king into a check situation. If the king is in check, it has to get rescued immediately by one of the following possibilities:
- Capturing the enemy's chessman which causes check
- Obstructing the enemy's chessman which causes check (a knight can not get blocked that way)
- Moving the king on a secured square
If the king can not get rescued by one of this possibilities anymore, it is checkmated and the game is over immediately.
If it's a player's turn and he isn't able to play any legal move (and as well his King is not in check), the game ends in a draw. This situation is called stalemate.
Countdown (chess clock)
A chess clock is used to define the game's duration. Also the players' time for consideration is limited. The chess clock stops the time which each player needs for his move. If the limit gets exceeded by a player, he usually loses the game.
If you meet the necessary requirements, you can move the King and the Rooks at the same time. These requirements are:
- You didn't move the King neither the Rook in this game
- The King is not in check
- The squares which get passed by the King aren't in check
- After the castling the King is not in check
- The squares between King and Rook are free
If you meet these requirements you are allowed to move the King 2 squares in the Rooks's direction. Afterwards the Rook jumps overs the King and gets placed next to it.
If you move a pawn for the first time and you use two squares, you need to consider a special rule: If this pawn passes a square which is offended by an opponent's pawn (your pawn gets moved next to the opponent's pawn), your pawn can get captured anyway immediately after your move.
If a pawn reaches the opponent's back rank, he needs to get turned into a Rook, Knight, Bishop or Queen within the same move.
End of the game
You win the game (1 point) if
- the opponent surrenders.
- The opponent's King is checkmated.
- The opponent's time limit gets exceeded.
The game ends in a draw (half point) if
- both players agree on a draw.
- there's a stalemate.
- the game can not get gained anymore by none of the players.
- The same position occurs for the third time and everytime it's the same player's turn.
- No pawn got moved and no piece got captured for 50 moves.
You can find the full official chess rules on the FIDE homepage: www.fide.com.
101 Chess tips
1. Rapidly develop all pieces
The main goal at opening is to develop pieces and reach castling as quick as possible.
Opening is complete when one or both players have their Rooks connected.
The player who finishes the development first gains the initiative.
2. Develop Knights before Bishops
While Bishops can control several squares from their original position, if there are no pawns obstructing their way, Knights dominate only their neighbour squares and take longer to reach the opponent’s field, because they are less mobile pieces.
3. Don't move the same piece twice during opening
Try to place your pieces at the best possible position at the first move.
It is a waste of time to move the same piece more than once during opening and it may cost you the initiative in the game.
4. Don't make unnecessary pawns moves during opening
Pawn moves should be restricted during opening, because the time involved in these moves could be applied to develop another piece.
Generally, moving pawns is suitable when the player aims to open diagonals for the Queen or Bishops or occupy the center.
5. Don't check if not necessary
A check that can easily be defended by the opponent is unnecessary.
Most of the checks during opening can easily be defended by moves that favor development.
6. Don't open a position if you are late in development
An open position favors the color with more pieces in the game.
Therefore, only the player who has an advantage in development should produce an open position.
7. Place the Queen behind the line of friendly pawns during opening
Since the Queen is a very powerful piece, it is also very vulnerable to the opponent’s constant attacks.
Therefore, it’s convenient to place it behind a pawn, preferably on the second rank so that the first one is free for Rook development.
8. Avoid trading a developed piece for a not developed one
Generally, it’s a bad deal to trade a well-positioned piece for a bad-positioned one.
When you trade one of your developed pieces for one of your opponent’s not developed ones, the time you invested for this development will be wasted.
The same is true if you trade a piece that has moved a lot for one that your opponent moved only once.
9. Castle as quickly as possible
The King’s safety is one of the most important things to care about during opening and middlegame.
The King in the center will always be very vulnerable to the opponent’s attacks, especially in open positions.
Castling means placing your King comfortably behind a pawn blockade and allowing development of one of your Rooks.
Then, the Rook may rapidly occupy an open or half-open file.
10. Kingside castling is safer than Queenside castling
Kingside castling places the King away from the center and safer behind a rank of protected pawns; furthermore it’s a quicker move than Queenside castling since only 2 pieces have to be moved before.
On the other hand, castling on the opponent’s opposite side may be very interesting to create more attacking opportunities.
11. Try to prevent the opponent from castling
If your opponent is waiting too long to castle, try to keep the enemy King even longer in the center.
One of the most common ways to do so is to control one of the squares serving as passage for the King (usually f1 or f8, when Kingside castling).
Most of the times it’s worthwhile to sacrifice a pawn in order to keep the King in the center.
12. Dominate as much territory as possible
The player, who has an advantage in space, enables greater mobility to friendly pieces and can, therefore, transfer pieces from one side to the other with more flexibility.
On the other hand, the player in a more restricted position finds it difficult to maneuver pieces, which might be fatal if they are requested to defend the King.
13. Advance pawns in order to conquer space
Although advancing pawns is the main resource to restrict the opponent’s position, this rule should be considered carefully because the farer the pawns are from base position the harder it is to defend them.
Furthermore, each position advanced by a pawn creates weakness at its adjacent squares, which may be occupied by enemy pieces.
14. As pawns advance they get more difficult to protect
A weak pawn is one that is not defended by another pawn, which means, that it must be defended by pieces, when it is under attack.
Those pieces lose much of their effectiveness because they have to assume a defensive role, while enemy pieces get an active role.
15. Place your pawns in the center
The center of the chessboard consists of e4, e5, d4 and d5. The expanded center also includes the squares that form the c3, c6, f3 and f6 rectangle.
Pawns are the best units to create the center because, differently from pieces, they are not vulnerable to the attack of enemy pawns.
16. Keep your pieces as close as possible to the center
In the center, a piece controls more squares than anywhere else on the board. The Knight, for instance, may move to 8 different squares from the center while it has only 2 options when placed in corners.
The control of the center is also important because it enables pieces to move rapidly from one side of the board to the other, and if your pieces move faster than the ones of your opponent, you have greater chances to create a successful attack.
17. When trading pawns, try to get yours as close as possible to the center
If two of your pawns can retake the opponent’s piece that previously captured one of your pieces, it is recommended to move the pawn that, at the end, will be closest to the center, since central pawns are more important than lateral ones.
18. Control the center before attacking
Successful attacks on the wings depend mostly on center control.
Therefore, concern yourself with a strong and stable center before starting any lateral attack.
19. Pawns are the foundation of strategy
The pawn structure is fundamental to any position, because it improves or reduces the effectiveness of pieces.
In order to achieve good pawn conformation, all different kinds of weak pawns should be avoided: isolated, doubled, backward and hanging pawns.
20. Pawn weakness is eternal
While pieces can move to become more active, any deficiency in pawn structure is a long-term weakness.
Therefore, if your opponent has weak pawns, you don’t need to hurry to explore them.
21. Avoid doubled pawns
Doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color lined up on the same file.
They have less mobility than normal ones and are more vulnerable to attacks, especially when isolated.
However, they do not always represent a disadvantage.
Dominance of an open or a half-open adjacent file, or even additional control of the center, may often be a sufficient compensation.
22. Avoid isolated pawns
Isolated pawns are those with no friendly pawn on either adjacent file. Therefore, they cannot be defended by a pawn of the same color, when they are under attack and have to be protected by a piece.
The main weakness of an isolated pawn is that the square directly in front of it is debilitated (a hole), because it cannot be controlled by another pawn and is easily occupied by an enemy piece.
Isolated pawns are even more vulnerable when placed in half-open files, because they become easy targets for enemy Rooks.
23. Avoid backward pawns
A backward pawn is closer to its base considering its adjacent comrades and is prevented from advancing, because the square directly in front of it is under an enemy pawn’s control.
A backward pawn usually impairs communication between defensive pieces and the weak square (hole) in front of it may easily be occupied by an enemy piece.
24. Avoid creating holes (weak squares)
Every time you advance a pawn, the squares beside him become holes.
A hole is a square that cannot be protected by pawns.
Its main disadvantage is that it is easily occupied by enemy pieces, improving their effectiveness, because they are not easily chased away from their positions, since they are free from opponent pawn attacks.
25. Avoid pawn islands
A pawn group separated from the others by one or more files is called an island.
Each island contains a basic position that has to be protected by other pieces.
Therefore, the more islands a player possesses the harder it gets to defend them. It is useful to consider influences on the pawn structure every time you trade pieces.
At the endgame, the smallest number of islands may be considered a significant advantage.
26. Think carefully before advancing hanging pawns
Hanging pawns are two friendly neighbour pawns that have no comrades on adjacent squares.
If they are placed in the same rank, they can control many squares in front of them, which is an advantage. But, on the other hand, they cannot be defended by other pawns.
Advancing one of them results in creating a backward pawn and a hole, both to be explored by the opponent.
27. Put pressure on the opponent's backward pawn
Usually, the best way to explore a backward pawn is to put pressure on it, so that the enemy uses resources in its defense, and afterward, attack at another point of the board.
28. Force your opponent to advance hanging pawns
In order to fight hanging pawns, you have to put them under pressure until a pawn advances, which results in a hole that you can occupy.
29. Whenever possible, create a passed pawn
Passed pawn is the one that doesn’t have enemy pawns in its way in its file or in adjacent files.
A passed pawn is considered a very dangerous weapon, because it may reach the final rank and be promoted.
30. Always blockade your opponent's passed pawns
A passed pawn can become a very powerful weapon, especially when it is well protected by enemy pieces; therefore it has to be immobilized as fast as possible.
To block a pawn is to prevent it from advancing by placing a piece in its way.
Knights and Bishops are considered the best pieces for blockades.
31. The Knight is the best piece to block a passed pawn
Thanks to its ability to jump over all units, the Knight is considered the best piece to block a passed pawn, because its range isn’t impaired by the pawn itself.
The Bishop is the second best blockader, especially if the pawn’s adjacent diagonals are open.
32. Pawn majority distant from the enemy King is an advantage
Majority is when a player possesses more pawns on one side than the opponent. For example, 2 against 1, 3 against 2, etc...
In many cases, majority results in a spatial advantage, but most important is that this majority always produces a passed pawn, when pawns are correctly advanced.
33. Minority attack
Whenever a color has majority of pawns on one side, the other color may perform a minority attack.
This attack consists of advancing pawns in order to force trades, leaving the opponent with only one isolated pawn or a backward one.
34. Avoid unnecessary trades
As a general rule, you should only trade pieces:
- When your opponent has the initiative
- When you are in a restricted position
- In order to weaken your opponent’s pawn structure
- When you are in material advantage
- In order to trade off a passive piece for an active one of your opponent
- In order to simplify position and reach a more favorable endgame
- In order to eliminate an important enemy defense
35. The value of a piece varies according to its position
The value of a piece is, generally, consistent with the number of squares it dominates, because the more squares it controls, the more it threatens the opponent.
A well-positioned piece is of much higher value than the equivalent enemy piece that occupies a bad position.
In general, a well-positioned piece has the following qualities: it is protected, has great mobility, isn’t easily attacked, cooperates with the other pieces and attacks enemy pieces or pawns.
36. Whenever possible, place your Rooks on the 7th or 8th rank
A Rook on the 7th rank is an advantage, not only because it represents danger to enemy pawns, but also because it restricts the opponent’s King and creates various mate possibilities.
37. Double Rooks on the 7th rank
Two Rooks occupying the 7th rank is an extremely dangerous weapon, because the enemy is condemned to the most complete passivity.
The enormous amount of pressure on the pawn base and the possibility of innumerous tactic themes, almost always turn this advantage into a win.
38. Not always a pawn should be promoted into a Queen
In amateur games, automatically queening a pawn has been the reason for many stalemate draws.
Carefully consider which piece is most appropriate for that specific circumstance.
39. Keep your Knights close to the center
Knights, more than any other piece, need to be close to the center of the chessboard.
First, because a Knight can control 8 squares from the center, while from the borders it controls only 4.
Second, because a Knight needs 4 moves to cross the chessboard and reach the other side, while from the center it takes only 2 to get to one of the borders.
40. Rooks should rapidly occupy open or half-open files
During opening, Rooks are the last pieces to be developed, because they are effective when they settle on open or half-open files.
Usually, the ideal squares to place Rooks are e1, d1 and c1 (e8, d8 and c8 for Black), because from these positions they can put pressure on the center and defend the backrank at the same time.
A Rook may, however, be an effective defense when placed on the 2nd file, while it still operates aggressively in the file.
41. Keep your Bishops active
The activity of a Bishop depends mostly of his friendly pawns’ placement.
A Bishop that is not blocked by its own pawns is a good Bishop and the one that is limited by its pawns is a bad Bishop.
42. Keep your pawns on squares of the same color of your opponent's Bishop
When your opponent has only one Bishop, you should place your pawns on squares of the corresponding color of the square occupied by the enemy Bishop.
However, if you have only one Bishop, then the color of your pawns’ squares should not correspond to your Bishops placement, whether your opponent has only one Bishop or not.
43. A Bishop is worth more than a Knight on open positions
Bishops must have diagonals to operate in order to be more effective, therefore the less there are pawns on the chessboard, the more effective they get.
In open positions - when diagonals aren’t obstructed by pawns - a Bishop can attack the kingside and protect its own flank from the Queen, at the same time.
On the other hand, a Knight can maneuver only on one side due to its restricted mobility.
44. A Knight is worth more than a Bishop in closed positions
Due to their ability to jump over other units, Knights perform better than Bishops in rigid pawn chain positions.
45. Knights need outposts
An outpost is a square, usually in the 5th and 6th ranks, that is under the protection of a pawn and isn’t subject to enemy pawn attacks.
When a Knight occupies an outpost, it puts a great deal of pressure on the opponent’s camp and it also supports the development of flank attacks.
46. Usually, in mobile pawn endgames, the Bishop is worth more than a Knight
In the Bishop’s fight against the Knight, the Bishop’s color should try to keep its pawns mobile, while the other camp should paralyze these enemy pawns, preferably on squares of the same color as the square occupied by their Bishop.
47. Two Bishops are, usually, stronger than Bishop and Knight and than two Knights
The Bishop is a long-range piece and its main disadvantage is the ability to control only squares of the same color.
Therefore, two Bishops complement each other perfectly. When well coordinated, they are superior to a Bishop and a Knight, because these enemies take too long to reach the active field due to the limited mobility of the Knight.
Another advantage of a pair of Bishops is that, at any moment, you may trade one of them for the enemy Knight, while it is very difficult for the opponent to trade the Knight for one of the enemy Bishops.
48. How to fight against a Bishop and a Knight
If you own a pair of Bishops and your opponent a Bishop and a Knight, restrict the enemy Bishop’s range by placing pawns on squares of the same color as the Bishop’s square, and reduce the power of the enemy Knight by preventing it from occupying outposts and central squares.
49. How to fight a pair of Bishops
If your opponent owns a pair of Bishops, restrict their activity with blocking pawn chains and conquer outposts for your Knight(s).
50. Keep your pawns on squares that are different from the ones of your Bishop
If you own only one Bishop, try to place your pawns on squares of the opposite color of the Bishop’s square.
Besides keeping the diagonal clear for the Bishop’s operation, this enables your pawns to work in perfect harmony with the piece, controlling one color of squares, while the Bishop controls the other.
51. Bishops should be placed in front of a pawn chain
A Bishop will be very weakened if it is restricted by pawns, therefore always try to place it out of the pawn chain, when they are on squares of the same color as the Bishop is.
52. If your opponent owns two Bishops, try to trade one of them off
When you are fighting a pair of Bishops, try to trade one of them off, because this will withdraw the dominance your opponent had over the squares the Bishop used to control.
53. Keep your eyes on the squares controlled by your opponent's Bishop
If your opponent owns two Bishops and you only one (the white-squared Bishop, for instance), the enemy has control over the color of the spare Bishop’s squares (the black squares, in this example).
That means, that you have to watch carefully over these squares, because the other Bishop (of the black squares) can attack pawns and squares your Bishop cannot defend.
54. A Bishop can dominate a Knight
Due to its wider range, the Bishop can totally control a Knight that is placed at a border of the chessboard.
In endgames, this may be fatal, because the color that owns a Bishop is, in effect, playing with an extra piece.
55. Think about defense first
The most important principle in chess is safety. At each move your opponent makes stop and ask yourself the following questions:
- Where is this move threatening me?
- What are my opponent’s intentions?
- What would I do in my opponent’s place?
56. Assess the changes resulting from your opponent's move
Each move may considerably change the situation on the chessboard. Therefore, it’s recommended to ask yourself the following questions after each of your opponent’s move:
- What does the new move attack and defend?
- Where has defense and attack been withdrawn?
- Which diagonals, ranks and files have been obstructed?
- Which diagonals, ranks and files have been liberated?
- Which enemy piece can occupy the square left by the piece that made the move?
- Where can the piece head to now?
57. Keep the back rank protected
Make sure your King is able to escape any back rank checks, before moving your Rooks from the 8th rank.
It’s always wise to open a small escape path for the King, before withdrawing Rooks from the 8th rank.
58. Don't let your pieces get overloaded
An overloaded piece is a piece performing more than one function at the same time. Usually, it’s the one that is busy defending two or more pieces.
Overloaded pieces are reason for tactic strikes leading to loss of material, because they leave something unprotected when they are forced to move.
59. Don't recapture pieces automatically
It’s recommended to consider the possibility of intermediate moves before retaking any piece.
Intermediate moves are powerful weapons because they surprise the opponent, besides being an important tactic component.
60. Avoid advancing pawns that protect your King
Every pawn move creates a weakness that may seem irrelevant at first site, but that can be exploited later on by your opponent.
61. Never allow your King to stay in danger of a check
Unexpected checks are, many times, the key to tactic strikes.
62. Avoid placing heavy pieces in the range of lower pieces
A piece of greater value should never be placed in the way of a less aggressive one, because the latter will be nullified.
63. If you've got little space, try to trade off one or two pieces
Try to trade one or two pieces in order to liberate some space, when you are in a restricted position.
The other way round, when you have space advantage, avoid trading and use this advantage to quickly shift the attack from one side to the other.
64. Eliminate your opponent's best piece
If one of your opponent’s pieces is very well positioned, try to trade it off.
65. Keep your pieces protected
Every unprotected piece may be the target of an enemy combination.
The ideal is to keep all pieces protected by pawns or, if there aren’t any available, by other pieces.
The main disadvantage of defending pieces by pieces is that, once the defender itself is attacked, it must abandon the piece it was protecting.
66. Keep your pieces on a square of a different color than the enemy Bishop is on
If your opponent has only one Bishop, try to place all your pieces on a square of a different color than the enemy Bishop can control.
67. Try to get rid of all pinned pieces
A pinned piece is immobilized and always vulnerable to new attacks.
It is impossible to avoid losing material, when the opponent gets to attack this piece with a pawn.
68. Never make the job easy for your opponent
Don’t despair when you are under attack; even in a clearly inferior position, there is always a chance for survival.
The main principle consists in making things difficult for your opponent’s attack, placing many obstacles in the enemy’s way, lingering as much as possible your defense and inducing your opponent to a mistake.
69. If your opponent attacks on one side, counter-attack in the center
Many times, the best answer to a flank attack is a counter-attack in the center, even if it costs you a pawn.
70. Try to anticipate your opponent's threats
Usually, a direct threat can be easily defended, but a remote threat, on the other hand, is only defended if you are able to anticipate it some moves before.
Otherwise, when the remote threat becomes imminent, it will come with another direct threat that will also need to get your immediate attention.
71. Trade off the opponent's Fianchettoed Bishop
This means to weaken a group of squares close to the King, which may open lines for an attack.
72. Improve your pieces' position
Try, gradually, to improve your pieces’ position so that they can control more important squares, cooperate with friendly pieces and put more pressure on the enemy territory.
73. Restrict the movement of enemy pieces
Try, whenever possible, to keep enemy pieces as far as you can from the field of action.
74. Confine an enemy piece
Keeping an enemy piece out of the game for a while may be sufficient to gain decisive advantage.
75. Do always create a threat
Your opponent is forced to allocate resources in order to contain the threat you created, which draws attention away from the enemy’s own plans.
76. Crate new weaknesses in the enemy field
Never be satisfied in attacking an existing weakness on your opponent’s position, but try to create new ones.
Many times, the first step to a king side attack is to force the weakness of a pawn.
77. Concentrate your forces on your opponent's weak points
As you put pressure on certain point, your opponent is forced to bring in pieces in order to protect this point, which leaves other areas on the chessboard unprotected and subject to new attacks.
78. Cumulate advantages before attacking
Before starting an attack, you should create weaknesses in the opponent’s position and place as many pieces you can in aggressive position.
A premature attack offers the opponent a chance to organize defenses.
79. Concentrate as much as possible your forces when you attack
In order to ensure a successful attack, it’s essential to concentrate your forces on your target, preventing your opponent from an effective defense.
If the attack fails in this case, the opponent’s weaknesses are very likely to increase.
80. Open ranks, files and diagonals
It’s important to open ranks with pawn moves or piece sacrifices, because it’s through these ranks that attacking pieces can enter the enemy position.
81. Eliminate key pieces of your opponent's defense
Identify the most important piece of your opponent’s defense, when you are attacking, and try to eliminate it.
82. Avoid trading while attacking
Unless there is a very good reason, it’s recommended not to trade pieces while attacking, because this may make the opponent’s defense easier.
Especially Queen trades, usually, debilitate the attack.
83. Plan hypothetical trades
Mentally withdrawing pieces from the chessboard, assessing the new position and verifying if the new situation is worse or better than the previous one is a very useful technique to evaluate if an exchange is to be made or not.
84. Quickly move your attack from one side to the other
Many times it’s necessary to create at least two weaknesses in enemy positions to win a game.
Then, an alternated attack on these weak points is a very powerful weapon, especially, when your opponent has a lack in space, since enemy pieces will get overloaded by defending both positions at the same time.
85. Whenever you have material advantage, simplify
Material advantage gets more and more intense as the number of pieces on the chessboard falls.
The difference of 1 unit in a battle of 4 against 3 is much more significant than in a battle of 10 against 9.
86. After an attack, reorganize your pieces
Usually, after an attack pieces lose their harmony.
Therefore, before starting a new incursion against your opponent, reorganize your forces and protect your weak points as quick as possible.
87. When a player has an extra pawn it's recommended to trade pieces instead of pawns
The principle is very simple: the fewer pieces in a game, the less complicated is the position and much easier it gets to explore material advantage.
88. Centralize your King as quick as possible in endgames
After most of the pieces, especially Queens, have been traded off, the King takes a predominant role in the battle and becomes an aggressive piece.
Since the King is a piece of little mobility, it’s recommended to centralize it as quick as possible so that it may move fast to the position on the chessboard where it is most needed.
89. The King must be active in the endgame
During most endgames, the King must worry less about mates and should assume a more active position, especially, pursuing and blocking enemy pawns.
90. Drag your opponent into compulsion to move
Compulsion to move (also called Zugzwang) is a situation in which any movement the player makes results in an even worse situation than if no move at all was performed (diagram).
This resource is particularly important in Bishop versus Knight endgames.
Since the Bishop has control on practically the same squares when it moves on a diagonal, it has a great time advantage on the Knight that loses control on squares when it moves.
91. Many wins are based on winning opposition
Kings are in opposition when they are placed on the same file, rank or diagonal with only one free square between them.
Opposition is a kind of Zugzwang, in which the move of one King opens the way to the passage of the other one.
Winning the opposition means that a player moves the King in order to put the enemy King in Zugzwang, forcing the latter to make the next move.
92. Endgames with Bishops of opposite colors usually result in a draw
Bishops of opposite colors may represent an advantage for the active color in the middle game, since the Bishop of the defensive part won’t be able to neutralize the pressure on a certain diagonal.
Nevertheless, in endgames one Bishop cannot attack the points the other can defend.
93. Flank pawns are very strong against Knights
Usually, a Knight has a hard time to fight passed pawns, due to its little mobility.
When these pawns are Rook pawns, it gets even harder, because Knights have more restricted movements close to the borders.
94. Keep your Rooks active in endgames
An active Rook is much stronger than a passive one. In endgames, this may, sometimes, be enough to win a game.
95. Always place a Rook behind a passed pawn
Rooks become more active behind passed pawns, both to support friendly pawns and to attack enemy ones.
96. The color that has an exchange down should avoid trading the second Rook
Many times, when a player has an exchange down, the simplest way to win an endgame is to trade off the opponent’s second Rook.
Usually, a lonely minor piece has little chance against a Rook.
97. Create a passed pawn if you have majority
In order to create a passed pawn from a majority of pawns, advance the pawn first that has no opponent in its file.
When the opponent succeeds in placing a pawn directly in front of your most advanced pawn, the advantage of your majority tends to disappear, because lateral pawns have no support to advance.
98. Centralize the Queen in endgames
Although the Queen should not be too exposed during the first part of the game, after some piece trading, it should be centralized whenever possible.
On a central square the Queen reaches its highest mobility (almost half of the chessboard) and it prevents the enemy Queen from occupying the most important positions.
99. Always expect your opponent to make the best move
Never make a move believing that your opponent won’t find the best answer to it.
Always try to make moves that gradually improve your position, even if your opponent finds the best answers.
100. Not every weakness is bad
Weaknesses only are relevant if the opponent can explore them.
A pawn is only weak if it can be captured; a square is only weak if the opponent can occupy it.
101. Every rule was made to be broken
Chess is not an exact science and all tips and concepts presented hereby cannot be applied in a 100% of the situations, neither should they be followed blindly.
One of the great differences between a Grandmaster and an amateur is knowing when basic strategy principles are to be violated or not.
In general, we recommend that you: Avoid advancing pawns that protect your King, unless you have a good reason to do so!